1. Last Teaching of Gabriel (A.S.)
Prof. dr. Ajhan Tekinesh
It is impossible to imagine for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) – for whom it is known how sensitive he was on the issue of teaching the Quran to his Companions – not having granted his permission for some people among the Companions to participate together with him at its last reading – where according to the importance of the issue Jibril had read the Quran twice – or not having informed his Companions about the last re-reading.
To realize an interchangeable and face to face reading, it is imperative the verses and Surahs having a certain order. Otherwise, it is impossible for the reader being carefully heard by the listener. If it is considered that both sides know its text by memorization, the reading process would not be meaningful if the text in the minds of either side will not follow a certain order. We must not forget that these re-readings, as explained in the hadith, were performed in the form of re-reading muqqabalah by both sides: Gabriel for Hz. Prophet and Hz. Prophet for Gabriel.
2. The Dictatorship of Quantity
S. Fatos Kopliku – Washington DC, SHBA
The abandonment of the traditional sciences exclusively for the physical ones, the exchange of gold for copper, is the beginning of the end for religions. Abandonment and indifference (passive degradation) are certainly followed by disdain and assault (active degradation). However, the fact that even the most sublime truths are called into question, or even thrown mud at, is not something new. What is new is the different forms that these doubts, or even denials, take. One of these forms comes in the shape of scientism, which may be defined as the conviction that only science is or it can be the only legitimate kind of knowledge and the only valid criterion of the truth. Despite the fact that many scientist are aware of the distinction between science and scientism, the latter has been popularized as a worldview, not rarely by authors that do not recognize this distinction, thus arriving at profoundly mistaken conclusions. In this article we will discuss this distinction and some of the claims, especially regarding religion, that arise from the inability of making this distinction.
3. The influence of religion in Kosovo territories
Ma. Sc. Refik Gërbeshi
Countries around us or beyond identify themselves with a specific religion, while among the Albanians, such components as nation and religion have always been unique. Destiny wished us to belong a multiple or triple religious diversity, which in fact are considered as national assets, while the impact and role of religion among generations has contributed in nation’s existence preservation. The Albanian history approach especially in light of religious communities’ development and their impact, as well as the characteristic of national dominance in them is not insignificant; rather, it dominates the line of coexistence, not escaping the abuse to be in service of disruption, especially from the foreigners, as well as from greedy people.
In our national history there are many religious figures who gave their precious contribute, but historians and researchers often tend to deny, or at least to hide their religious title under the pretense of preserving the national secular image. But the geostrategic impact and the national and political effect, has always been and still is obvious, especially after the secession of Kosovo from Albania and its occupation by Serbs, who used religion for their politic goals. This does not mean that the Albanians, respectively the Albanian religious leaders – especially those Muslims – did not use religion as geo-strategy to distinct themselves from their enemy. On the other hand, the trend of rising above religious divisions and affiliations in the interest of unity on the national issue has started during the Renaissance and its continuity has always been in function over time. The theme of coexistence between Muslims and Catholics, from the last 15 centuries until today, is one of the issues that have a special importance for a progressive society.
4. The importance of analogy in Islamic jurisprudence
One of the basic sources of Islamic Sharia, by which the recognition of Islamic legal provision is obtained, is also the analogy, which in Islamic terminology is known by the notion Qiyas. If we take a look at all systems that have been operating, or which operate today in the human society, it can be easily verified the fact that no system has included literally all legal norms for every vital issue, whether accidental actions or innovations that occur with time. But no doubt that in the legal system are set basic general principles, rules and conditions that dictate the disclosure or determination of a legal provision for a specific case. This is the reason why lawyers constantly deal with the review and amendment of laws, through amendments and annexes made to the law. However, the most important thing in these changes is that lawyers never dare to distort the general basic principles of the legal system.
5. From an imported art to a national literature
Prof. Asoc. Dr. Rahim Ombashi
Faculty of Humanities, Department of Communication Sciences
Earlier, the Albanian literature has been documented through Latin alphabet by Philo-Biblical people, but without being able to spread widely. Even that literature as the tribal literature before it, failed to turn into a national literature. The early years of eighteenth century encouraged the Albanian poets who were writing in Persian, Arabic and Turkish, to versify in the language of their people. A cause for such a great transition, did become the complemented individuals’ necessity to know themselves. They spoke about a wonderful cultural development that began as an imported art, but which over time appeared as something characteristic of Albanian people. The Prophetic message opened the possibility of intimate poetry where a deep meditation occurs, proving thus a personal sensitivity. The Albanian literature in Arabic script, is called literature of … tekkes. It has as its natural ground the nobly inherited Aryan cultural humus.
Tasawwuf (mysticism), as poetics of contemporary writing, served it as an opportunity, and the tradition of oriental literature provided it models of poetic genres and types. These premises helped the Albanian poets educated at Ottoman schools to manifest themselves as secular poets. The great interest aroused on the masses of people, helped this literature to become widely known. It has been scientifically accepted the support of the patrons who had the executive power. Alamiado literary authors had rich social origin, but they also enjoyed the protection of the Albanian Beys. When it happened that these powerful administrators were also writers on themselves, not only sympathetic to this literature, this support provided qualitative fruits. The object of this study will be the social conditions that allowed the birth, development and spread of this literature which lasted for about two centuries. This literature started with the Divan of Nezim Berati, an ancestor of Vlora prominent family, which planted and nurtured the poetic works of Naim Frashëri, on which we can also find some oriental influences. The generative method helps generalization coming naturally, shifting from the specific meaning approach to the generalized one, as contribution for the study of this prejudiced complex Eurocentric literature.
6. Private and public space on freedom exercise
Today, the world thanks to mass communication channels – the Internet, satellite and many other forms of mediating between people – cannot be considered a reality of separate localities in which local laws prevail. Nowadays, when the entire planet is turned into a common Agora’, they should prevail over local values and they should be universal values, as multicultural realities unifying. In this sense, the conflict between the two forms of public and private understanding of morality, results inevitable in various civilizations.
The freedom of belief can never be regarded as an opponent of the freedom of speech. This because freedom of speech is an integral part of freedom of belief and vice-versa. Hence the dilemma freedom of speech or freedom of belief arise only from a secular perspective and liberal theories. Whereas the restrictions that innately exist and should exist within the freedom of speech when important frontiers of human society – including faith – are touched and violated, are a guarantee of system and social welfare conservation, rather than being problematic. Just as there are limits to freedom of speech in a secular society when its structure and functioning is violated, precisely as a result of this freedom, so there should be some restrictions on democratic and secular liberal societies when freedom of religion is violated, since the latter is its integral part; it is the spiritual inspiration for the motion of the huge pinion of such a society.
7. Evolution and enrichment of our psychology curriculum
Prof. Dr. Musa Kraja
Psychology has a very long prehistory and a very short history as a genuine science. It can be observed that in many writings, even in psychology texts, a considerable number of Albanian authors ignore the Albanian tradition – including the Islamic one – in the Albanian psychological thinking. This represents an intellectual poverty. The paper aims to highlight some basic data on this very important science’s enrichment in the field of education.
The genuine psychological works of Prof. dr. Hasan Tahsini “Psychology”, is the first in the history of the Albanian Psychological Thought and even in all countries which the Ottoman Empire included. The foreword of the book “Psychology” was prepared by the Turkish scholar Nadiri Fevzi, who considered Hasan Tahsini as his true and honored teacher, presenting him to the public as a “towering and remarkable figure for his virtues, not only among Istanbul scholars, but as a well-known scholar, whose fame and glory had already spread across Europe.” Hasan Tahsini is presented here as an expert of the Islamic and Western Enlightenment, who highlights some of the fundamental concepts of this science. Here it is also represented the precious contribution of prof. Alexander Xhuvani in psychological thought, and that of other thinkers before and after him. In his major academic work, Pajazit Nushi made a depth analysis in the field of psychological thought of the time, publishing two volumes with about 1,200 pages of large format on “Lectures of Psychology I-II”, published by the Academy of Sciences and Arts Kosovo, Pristina, 2014, focusing on some of its fundamental aspects through which other researchers of the Albanian psychology are also highlighted.
8. The concept of community and the formation of communities
Dr. Genti Kruja, Muslim Community of Albania
In the scientific discipline of sociology, the concept of community gets its importance and complexity due to the emergence of “modern industrial society”. In the West this phenomenon has led to the destruction of traditional structures of identity and social organizational forms. In order to better understand the concept of “community formation” in the Muslim world, it is worth to point out the changes expressed in the method of their approach in the Western and Islamic imagination.
9. Quran – the spirit of Muslim Ummah
Prof. Dr. Shahid Bushihi, Morocco
As this transformation occurs in individuals, it occurs in communities too. Even when it comes to a community, the Qur’an causes the same change and transformation that does the soul to the body. It brings together separate parts of society and provides a unique and cooperative model of it. The corpse of the dead, already abandoned by his soul, now begins to decompose and melt, in order to be converted into the initial elements of which it has been created, where each of its elements turns back to its origin – the ground. But what happens to the body in case of death? Someone dies and we see that nothing has changed for him; he is still the one who has been before his death. On the other hand, everything has changed on him. What has left him since in the apparential aspect nothing has changed, but that everything has changed anyway? It has been left the one which we know with the name soul. It was the spirit that had unified the being and its physical structure. It was the spirit that deterred the decomposition of the body and its dissolution, but which also helped his recovery during any sickness. It was the spirit which had provided it senses and skills.
10. Message of Islam – a religion for all
Muhamed Tewfijk Ahmed
The Quran teaches us that there is no compulsion in religion, expressing against any form of violence. All wars in Islam were conducted to protect religion and belief. This is true although on certain periods, some leaders of Islamic countries fought for the interests of worldly benefits, which made them descending from the pyramid of spiritual dimensions which their ancestors had reached as long as they had observed the true teachings of their own religion. So we should not criticize Islam for this failure because it is against these wars. We should emphasize that the members of other religions have also performed wars in the name of religion with the same goals however religion is innocent regarding these wars.
Islam has endowed man with an absolute freedom of thought. He elevates the human spirit from violence, living thus in eternal peace.
11. Hafiz Musa Dërguti
Decorated with the medal “Torch of Democracy”, 1995
Hafiz Musa Dërguti was not specialized in sociology, but while living among the people who he loved so much, in their joys and sorrows, he aimed that through the sources of the Islamic faith teachings, to somehow soften people’s hearts, to ease their pains, to run and to enlighten the path towards the good, truth, justice and understanding – the path that Islam preaches – and this made him a very lovable person to every family.
12. Young people today: what do they think and whom do they believe?
This is such an important question as we can say without fear at all that its answer deserves a deep study, and it is really worth to be a text content of each magazine which has in its program the prosperity of mankind, as well as the moral leadership.
This is a question which has attracted around it the entire world’s thinking, and the outcome of its answer will tell us which trend is directed the today’s century through its youth by throwing back what has been found as foundations of morality and faith.
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