1. Islam’s strategy for peacemaking in the world
Prof. Dr. Muhamed Sherkavi, Saudi Arabia
Islamic teachings point to the human right to freely choose their own faith and religion. The Qur’an emphasizes this principle in many passages like: “There is no compulsion in religion” (Baqara, 256); “If anyone wants to believe let him believe and whosoever will, let him disbelieve” (al-Kahf, 29); “And you are not obligated to make them believe forcefully” (Ghashiya, 22); “Your duty is just to foreshadow.” (Shura, 48).
Islam recognizes the right to freedom of opinion and expression.
It should be known that any attempt to dismantle the principle of pluralism and freedom, and any manipulation that can be done in this respect has nothing to do with Islam and does not represent the true principles of Islam, even if it comes from people and organizations who identify themselves with Islamic religion. Such practices are totally far away from the true Islam and the major goals of its message.
2. It is the Glorious Qur’an (A verse and reflections on a fact)
Blerim Lazimi, Physics teacher at “Said Najdeni” high school, Peshkopia
People, at any time, have made efforts to find arguments by which justifying the mobility or immobility of the Earth, and furthermore, to understand its place in the universe (as the only planet sustaining life)… In the first part of the verse the opinion and viewpoint that ruled for centuries in scientific and philosophical worldview, even beyond Quranic era until the years 1500-1600, is clearly reflected. “And you see the mountains and think they are stationary …”. Namely, in this short part of the verse appears synthesized the idea that humanity has constantly and historically observed and studied the mountains of the earth. And further, it means that people have surmissed that the mountains and the earth are stationary. So they have formulated the false impression that the earth does not move, i.e. the idea of geocentric system.
3. Ibn Majah and his Sunan
Dr. Sedat Islami, Kosovo
One of the scholars that has taken an important place in the history of Islamic science is Ibnu Majah. His contribution, although extended in several religious areas, has left deep traces in the hadith. Ibnu Majah is the author of Sunan, one of six basic books of prophetic traditions or Hadiths as they are known in the relevant terminology. This paper aims to shed light on the biography of the author on the one hand, and on the research description of his work on the other. Its importance lies in the fact that maybe for the first time in this format, it introduces to the reader this colossus of knowledge and his majestic work.
4. An overdue homage for the cornerstone personality of the Albanian bridge Lumo SKËNDO at “Zani i Naltë”
Rahim Ombashi, BEDER University, Tirana
This magazine of Albanian Muslim Community emerged during an important period of our national history which resulted very agitated; at a period with little events when Albanian spiritual world was in search of the lost time. After several rebellions, uprisings and coups that followed one another, the magazine appeared in our spiritual sky like a warm light that would offer its help not only in informing the reader, but which would foster such a type of communication that had local and temporal coloring.
The magazine shows the interconnection of traditional media with the contemporary, as T.S. Elliot has noted in hiss essay entitled “The individual tradition and talent” (1919). According him, even the most individual parts and the best work of a certain author, are those by which the previous authors had strongly confirmed their immortality.
5. “ZANI i Naltë” – A magazine of religious thought and national emancipation
Resul Rexhepi, Muslim Community of Kosovo
“Zani i Nalte” is an enterprise designed by great people, by visionaries farsighted patriots and ulemas, who through their work contributed preciously in explaining the teachings of Islam fairly and accurately and helped in creating the state and national identity forming. It is just this golden generation of prominent Muslim leaders who left their outstanding mark on our religious and national history, like Hajji Vehbi Dibra – the imam who gave the fatwa on the declaration of Independence, and later the founder and first chairman of the Albanian Muslim Community; the well known ulemmas: Hafiz Ali Korça, Hafiz Ismet Dibra, Hafiz Ali Kraja, Ismail Maçi, Jonuz Bulej, Haki Sharofi, Ferit Vokopola, Qazim Hoxha, Shevqet Dajiu, Shefqet Muka, Nebil Çika, Sali Butka, Hamid Gjylbegu and many others, without leaving aside here the other personalities of political, cultural and literary thought like Midhat Frashëri and other compatriots. This has made possible that even 90 years later, the articles published in “Zani i Nalte” resembling very actual and coherent and sounding as being said today.
6. Muslims and the time, Muslims in time
Ilir Akshija, M.D., M.Sc., University Hospital Center “Mother Teresa”, Department of Statistics
Muslims constitute 24% of the world’s population and their number in 2020 is expected to be about 2 billion or 26% of the total population. Such a population extended across continents, brings with it a unique culture of their faith, where the concept of time, its measurement and management takes an Islamic hue. Implementation of transcendental Quranic comandations has been well defined for the Ummah of Muhammad P.U.B.H., being also ordered to coexist with others without imposing forcefully their own faith through violence. The existence of Islamic society in such a balance makes no exception to the notion of time, extensively referred from the Quran and with a direct impact on the practice of religious duties. Its knowledge and study minimally becomes the first task for everyday life and also for managing the relations with others. The principle remains the same for all Muslims, while in reality the projection takes different values depending on geography, historical periods and social relations. It can be calculated that in Mecca the time neccesary for fasting consists 4.7% of a lunar year while in Tirana it is 4.9% of the period of an entire lunar year. On the other hand we can see the obligated changes made throughout history when Muslims have combined their standard measuring time via lunar calendar and times of prayer with the solar calendar, or have adopted components such as the periodic clock changing twice a year. Such a permanent change requires a constant study of the phenomenon and frequent adjustments.
7. Albanian language instruction during the Renaissance up to beginning of the 20’s of the last century dr. Njazi Kazazi
Department of Linguistics, University of Shkodra, “Luigj Gurakuqi”
Several historical processes that occurred during the middle ages left deep traces in the development of culture and education in Albania. Albania was occupied and in front of assimilating targets of foreigners, the development of education in the Albanian language was very difficult. In such conditions as writing language in Albanian territories were used Latin language in the North and Greek language in the South. In the fifteenth century the Turkish-Arabic language became the official language, but in addition, Italian and Latin language were also used. Although these languages penetrated one after another, they failed to get the status of the spoken language by the people, thus their use was limited to the administration of the invaders, religious services and in their schools. During this time in the country only the foreign schools were recognized as standard educational institutions. Albanian language apparently began to be taught later, but efforts to develop its original script may have started in the XVII century.
8. Albania’s secession from the Ottoman Caliphate and the efforts for the independence of the Albanian mosque
Dr. Hasan Bello
Institute of History – Centre of Albanological Studies
On the proposal of the Sharia High Court, which functioned as the highest instance of Islamic affairs, attempts were made to reorganize the Islamic theological studies. Thus, instead of small madrasas that were very extended in the past, some of which performed their activity with a single teacher (Myderriz), the opening of some more complete madrasas was projected in the main cities of Albania, such as Shkodra, Elbasan, Berat, Tirana and Durres. These madrasas would have the structure of high schools according to the European model and, in addition to religious subjects, secular subjects would be taught in Albanian language. For the preparation of religious teachers (myderriz) and sharia judges, the opening of a theological university in the center of the country, exactly in Elbasan was thought. In this university would study madrassists who aspired for a higher theological preparation.
9. Religion in schools
A view of intercultural communication and interfaith dialogue specialists
MSc. Qani Sulku, Journalist
A statement of the Prime Minister of Albania, Mr. Edi Rama about the inclusion of a subject on religious knowledge in university education curricula sparked an online debate in the Albanian media, both audiovisual and printed, and also made sensation in public opinion. In these discussions was observed the lack of intercultural communication and interfaith dialogue specialists as the most competent people in this field. Their perspective and analysis is important and necessary for the subject of this nature. But how was considered and commented the statement of the Prime Minister? Why statements of this type cause a rapid response in the media, according their opinion? How clearly the statement made by the head of government was understood by the pollsters who were part of television panels or columnists of the daily press? Did Prime Minister in his statement mean a genuine religious subject, or merely a subject which consists in studying the history of religions? How similar and different are these two? These and other questions we will try to answer through an interview conducted by the expert of Intercultural Communications and Interreligious Dialogue, Prof. asoc. dr. Gentiana Skura, and also through a questionnaire conducted to graduates students of intercultural communication profile in 2015, as well as through a survey conducted by students of pre-university educational system.
10. A major personality of medieval Albania– Ilyas Bey Mirahori (1410-1512)
Hysen Kobellari, Ph.D.
From the depths of centuries come to us signs, informations, interesting facts and documents about a distinguished and important Albanian personality – and not only – of medieval period, called Ilyas Bey Mirahori. This major figure neglected by our historiography, but immortalized in the memory of people, has exceeded the limits of the history of a country, regarding his wide, long and multi-faceted influence and activity extended in time and space. S. Frashëri, N. Naci, Ilo Mitkë Qafëzezi, P. Pepo, S. Pulaha, S. Ramo, etc., have given many important and valuable informations in order to somehow illuminate this multifaceted figure of such a magnificent fashion. There are thousands of pages of documents and letters that languishes in the archives of Turkey. In the State Archive of Tirana, in the fund entitled on his name, there are four decrees (noble fermans) Sultan, belonging to the years 1484, 1496, 1497 and 1503; stories, songs and legends on his life and his works still vivify among people; toponyms, boundaries, names of places and objects still exist today, regardless the dust of forgetfulness that centuries leave behind. Real estates left by Mirahori are located in several Balkan countries, perhaps in two continents; the charitable and civilized activity of Ilyas Bey is one of the first and one of the few on the continent. His descendants still live in Korca and elsewhere under Myteveli surname. Frashëri brothers – well known patriots and scholars – were his progeny by their mothers lineage. A magnificent monument of culture and history which has resisted time, “Ilyas Bey Mirahori ” Mosque, the oldest and most beautiful in the region and above all, an entire city, Korca, ancient as much as young, beautiful and contemporary, all these bear his name.
11. Religion should be supported
Rrapo Rustemi (Student of the General Madrassa)
The man has rooted in his nature the appreciation and reverence to a friend, from whom he has had a kindness, even if small. Man sees with sympathy his wealth, especially if he has harvested useful fruits from is; he always tries to do the necessary service to his property because from it he provides physical foods which help him surviving in his provisional life.
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