1. Learning the Civil Norms in the Madrassas of Albania II
Prof. Asoc. Dr. Gentiana Skura, Universitety of Tirana
Dr. Robert Gjedia, “Marin Barleti” University
Dr. Genti Kruja, “Bedër” University
The curriculum of civic education in pre-university educational system includes the subjects of “Education for Society” and “Citizenship” and aims at the formation of students’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and civic values in this educational cycle, relying heavily on philosophies, good practices and citizenship models of the democratic world in general and that of Western European countries in particular, where in essence individual rights and responsibilities, law enforcement, environmental protection, employment rights, human security and coexistence in the community remain as core values. However, the content of the aforementioned subjects does not provide any information or educational practice related to matters regarding the religious instruction and education. This kind of education also has a special place in the curriculum that is sufficient to achieve the desired goals and competencies for the students, considering the number of lessons, the specific weight of the curriculum area, as well as the actual subjects of civic formation being taught in all three pre-university education cycles, compared to the curricula of European education systems.
Madrassas develop the official curriculum of pre-university education cycles, but they also include a part of the curriculum that has a religious orientation, which is also approved by the Ministry of Education.
Religious subjects are integrated into the official curricula of the madrasas in such a way as to support the topics covered by civic education subjects. Since the people living in the democratic system are very much in line with the believers (regardless of religious affiliation), the common themes of these subjects are numerous.
2. Call in Islam among Albanian people in the actual geocultural, geopolitical and postmodernist environment
Dr. Milazim Krasniqi
A highly selfish, alienated, nihilistic and hermit man must be offered a presentation and interpretation of Islamic religious belief, which has to be a powerful consoling and saving offer – an offer that does not ignore its real state of affairs; an attractive and benevolent offer that gently attires the attention; that helps not sinking into the mire of disappointment and which is offered as a lifeboat.
However, the postmodern perspective on the world has already been imposed and it is becoming dominant even among the new generations of Albanian people. Therefore, it must be recognized by Muslim pilgrims and scholars as a separate worldview and state, in the totality of its values and controversies, in order to be effective in communicating with the public (jamaat) originating in this sphere. By contrast, even their religious life will be increasingly involved in improvisations, spontaneity, obscurity, and finally in indifference. This would also open a new opportunity for the de-Islamization of Albanians, but in this case not in the circumstances of totalitarian terror – as was the case of the communist regime – but in the circumstances of freedom, where religious elites have abolished communication with people because of their inability to orient themselves in the new geopolitical, cultural and social realities.
3. Sciencism – The modern Trojan Horse
M.S. Fatos A. Kopliku
Sincerity and good intentions in themselves are not a guarantee of useful communication, so the protection of the words of the divine books and prophets from materialistic and agnostic background attacks cannot be done through science of technology – such is the case of the modern West – rather, adopting a philosophical background that in principle does not reject or even contradict God as the Source of everything that gets existence and life. Today’s scientific knowledge can be integrated and interpreted in a Divinity-centered worldview; something that has happened with success even in the past – not only of Islam – but of other authentic religious traditions. Scientism – the philosophical background of modern science – is really a Trojan Horse, which, when brought within the walls of the stronghold of faith, ultimately becomes the cause of its weakness, if not of its destruction. If you occasionally notice an alarm tone between the rows of this article, it is worth remembering that even Cassandra did not warn the trojans whispering about the horse Trojan would bring but loudly. When there is a fire, nobody complains about the alarm sounds or firefighting loud voice. However, comparisons stop here, because this is neither the first nor the last writing that draws attention to the risk of penetrating the scienticism in religion and – unlike Kassandra, whose words the Trojans didn’t take into consideration and called her crazy – already there is a considerable number of Muslim authors – and not only – that have begun the criticism of the scientific worldview from a traditional intellectual and spiritual perspective.
4. Corps of Ottoman graffitti in Tepelena and Delvina
Dr. Mehmet Tütüncü
World Research Center for Turkish and Arab Languages,
Haarlem, The Netherlands
This is a study and publication about Ottoman graffitti in southern Albania, defined as the area between Vlora and the Greek border. Over the past few years, many new graffitti (mainly gravestones) have been discovered by foreign and local scholars. Many graffitti mentioned in some writings of well-known authors (Evlia Çelebi and others) have been added to these new ones. 25 graffiti from this area, dating back to 1542 to 1897, are published here as part of the Corps of Ottoman graffitti in Albania. These graffitti are studied in their historical and cultural context. They contain information on activities in the field of construction, life and culture of that area during the centuries of Ottoman rule in Albania.
Keywords: Ottoman, graffitti, Albania.
5. An Historical view on the book
“History of Albanian Pashaliks in the Ottoman Empire” of Syrja bej Vlora Part I
Dr. Hasan Bello
Institute of History, Center of Albanological Studies
The book “History of Albanian Pashaliks in the Ottoman Empire” of Syrja bej Vlora is a modest attempt to shed light on a number of personalities who have lived, worked and contributed for an imperial state, part of which were also Albanians during five centuries.
In this book, data of general character are given, which for the sake of truth can now be considered as outdated from those scholars who want to deal with a profound research of the Ottoman period. As for passionate readers of history, they are a valuable contribution, with little or no previously known information. The author discloses interesting data for familiar and unknown names from Albanian historiography, perhaps for the fact that for these personalities, prejudice instead of sound reasoning did prevail.
This book in manuscript was written in the Ottoman language and now it can be found at the State Central Archive of Tirana together with the translation into Albanian. It has in total 144 pages in Ottoman and 52 pages in Albanian translated by the orientalist Jonuz Tafilaj. In the inventory compiled by the orientalist Haki Sharofi, the manager of the Turkish manuscript section in the historical archive, the date of receipt of this translation June 26, 1963 appears. As for the time when it was written by Syrja bey Vlora, we still have no data.
Although this manuscript translation is in the northern dialect and contains a considerable amount of errors, we have intervened only where it was indispensably necessary. This because dialects along with translations made in a given period are a tremendous asset and bear the stamp of the time.
But on the other hand, in order to help the readers, we converted the years of lunar calendar to the solar calendar by placing them in parenthesis without changing the original text. In the sections in which an Ottoman historical term appears we tried to explain it with the sign (*) in the subtext. As for some personalities – whose birthdays, the year of death and the time they served as prime ministers is shown – we have placed them in brackets.
Contribution of Al-Khwarism and Ibn Fadlan to the development of the science of geography
M.sc. Artan S. Mehmeti
He was born in the Persian region called Chorasmia. Nowadays this region belongs to Uzbekistan. Al-Khwarizmi was a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, etc. As a scientist, academically he made a huge progress during the period he worked at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. This house was a scientific center that dealt with the translation and research of scientific and philosophical theories, and in particular the Greek ones.
In this center, research in various scientific and religious fields was also carried out as well as teaching the young students.
The contribution of al-Khwarism, in the field of geography during the medieval era, was enormous. He corrected and systematized Ptolemy’s research using the findings found during his research.
Ibn Fadlan was born in 877 AD. He was an X-th century traveler, who was sent as secretary of the Embassy of Abbasid Caliphate from Baghdad to the Kingdom of the Bulgarian Volga. He is also known as a writer, historian, traveler and geographer.
7. Satirical poem reading for semantical, language, stylist, artistic and letter values
Associate Prof. Dr. Rahim Ombashi
BEDER University College
Recently, as a result of professional research, it was discovered in the State Archives in Tirana, another satirical poem of the creator (publicist) of this city, Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu. The prominent poet of the 1930s is being offered to contemporary readers, thanks to the interest of the researcher Genti Kruja, because communication with the author had been, for reasons beyond the borders, after the end of World War II. The poem written in 1922 (?) is titled “A dream of mine”. The satirical poem of Hafiz Ibrahim Dalliu (1878-1952) has a total of 681 verses, written in one column, with triple but inseparable verses. Triple verse is inseparable from one colon, with a string of dotted lines, with rhymed AA for the two beginning strings, while the third verse B, which is tetrocrosis, reinserts with the third row B of the following and then the following. The typing is done in 16 sheets with the letter “e” instead of letter “ë”, but especially the gaps in the placement of the punctuation marks and the poor quality of typing presents difficulties in reading the original, but not in the evaluation of the work. The object of the philological method will be the discovery of linguistic values that realize contextual and local communication and as a real documentation of linguistic extremism that originated those times.
Keywords: semantics, stylistics, environmental language, gnomics, comic discourse
8. Foods and drugs – permissible and forbidden – in front of the XXI-th century developments
A vast body of literature speaks about halal and haram in relation to food and drugs. Despite of all similarities in regard to modern structures which define regulations and offer recommendations Islam preserves the everlasting singularity of reference to Qur’an. That’s why the necessity of the everlasting translation of these transcending rules second the metrics of time we live becomes a mandatory duty to Muslim scholars. They put themselves between Qur’an and the obligation to interpret in real time. Two levels of interpretation become necessary. In the highest level Qur’ans rules about the permissible and the forbidden are understood by them remaining to abstract and requiring a second practical level of interpretation characterized of easiness to understand and utilize from the lay people. This duty in reality doesn’t bring nothing new to the source this rules derive but their interpretation is always a challenge times bring anew. Among the most important changes result to be the increase of drug quantity and time of consummation and foods of a complex nature where technology interferes. New demographic and technological developments, unknown before our age brought lots of novelties compared to the simple life of our ancestors. In this situation we can’t negate the shortcomings of an organized response, although continuous efforts are present, but hoping that possessing a treasure of invaluable assistance as the Qur’an is, will guide us toward disclosure of knowledge and practice. Irreplaceable contributions remain to the classical schools of Islamic thought. Although some of their decisions have to change in ours times context we must preserve their models of thought as part of our identity preservation confirming to be their historical continuity.
Keywords: Halal, haram, drugs, food, technology, demography, tabaco, meat
9. “Drita Islame” – a spark of Islam’s light in post-communist Albania
Prof. dr. Qani Nesimi
Mufti of Tetovo
“Drita Islame” has a heavy burden to educate the new generation on religion, which can either have the potential to positively influence or it can have a negative and destructive impact at the same extent. It can either help the humanity or cause harm to it; can either create peace in one place or can also be a cause for war. Balkan wars between Serbs and Bosnians, between Serbs and Albanians, between Albanians and Macedonians, between Serbs and Croats, between Greeks and Albanians, can be at the same extent of national proportions as well as of religious ones, either directly or indirectly, as motivators of war or as its supporters. All this depends on the way we use religion; the way it is handled. So, one who believes and practices religion has a great responsibility on how he uses it. But one who has to make a decision or hold an attitude on religion is strongly influenced on what circumstances and beliefs he has experienced or how serious he is in his attitude. Therefore, in my opinion, the periodical magazine “Drita Islame” has played a very important role in the presentation and the correct interpretation of the Islamic religion, which is against violence, murder, abuse of religion, mistreatment of others, etc.
10. Haji Ibrahim Kaduku (1869-1949)
Haji Ibrahim Kaduku through his intellectual background made his fame cross over the borders of Albania, becoming known on three continents, Europe, Asia and Africa. Haji Ibrahim originally studied in his hometown of Shkodra, being evidenced as a zealous students with particular skills especially in the teaching of foreign languages and social subjects. His father who was a trader often took Ibrahim to the family store for helping him in trade but one day while making the sales accounts, he noticed that the income was less than the articles that were sold. When he asked his son Ibrahim, the later replies that he sold the stuff at a low price to those in need. Then his father, seeing his altruistic soul and humanity, decided to take him out of the store and sent him to study in Istanbul Madrassa and the famous Fatih University for Islamic sciences, where he graduated with excellent results in 1893. Because of his exemplary results and of positive opinion created on him among the pedagogical staff and faculty leaders and because of the intellectual abilities he manifested during schooling, he managed being employed as a lecturer at the university where he taught the subject of the Ottoman and Arabic language. This was a rare case in the practice of world universities. This clearly demonstrated his profound preparation in linguistics and theology. After succeeding in teaching these subjects, he was assigned to give these courses at the Istanbul Military Academy.
Divine Mercy has covered everything
«ورحمتي وسعت كل شيء»
Kindness triumphs over the evil.
«من جاء بالحسنة فله عشر أمثالها و من جاء بالسيئة فلا يجزى إلا مثلها و هم لا يظلمون».
Almost everyone – without exception – affirm that Divine Mercy is great and infinite, but only a few people who know its reality and again, a very small number of them believe in the Eternal Mercy that has intervened everywhere. But there are also those who want to grasp and understand the Divine Mercy.
So, in order to help the last category mentioned above, who did not have the chance to attend the theological lessons in any madrassa, or did not have the opportunity to hear useful words and advice from any religious scholar – because this also constitutes a knowledge on itself – I saw as reasonable that the divine supreme proposition – by which I adorned the head of this article – to explain and elaborate based on the lessons I received from this Holy Institute, so that to soften the heart of those who have rebelled against logic and reason and who have been diverted from the right path.
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