1. Six Centuries of Institutional Islam in the Balkans
Academic Feti Mehdiu, Kosovo
Arguments clearly indicate that the beginning, the spread and the revival of Islam in the Balkans, and more concretely in the Albanian area, are closely linked to a long-lasting bond with the activity of the mosque, as an institution based on the Qur’an. When they managed to take over the Balkans, the state institutions of the Ottoman Sultanate, in support of the Quran and Hadith, as the two indisputable sources of the Islamic religion, built the necessary legal mechanisms for the action and application of the Islamic source: Qur’an and Hadith. They built mosques as a prerequisite to prepare people with sound moral. This is evidenced by the fact that in the same year when the first mosque was built in these areas, in 1396 – in Kicevo, the institution of Islamic jurisprudence was also established – represented by the Qadi at Jeni Pazar – as an instrument for the implementation of Islamic basis.
These institutions continued to increase in numbers and they never came under the influence of various ideologies because for them the Qur’an was above all, the best regulator of life in war, peace, and after peace.
Only in this way could they, for the past 620 years, lead an active life, never kneeling in front of ideologies as platforms prepared by ordinary people under the influence of different circles. Their future will be bright if they continue to follow the path of Qur’an and the Sunnah of Muhammed (pbuh).
History should be based on verified moral arguments and materials. If it is based on myths, there is no future.
2. When we talk about love…!
Dr. Hysen Kobellari, “Aleksandër Moisiu” University, Durrës
Treating love in all its conceivable dimensions and its powerful influence on human life is a subtle and difficult theme, yet so beautiful and attractive to be addressed by scholars and writers of different fields. Nonetheless, this theme is mostly preferred by literary writers and poets. They have created endlessly about love and the man who loves; about love and passion; about the great pleasure and the positive feelings that love brings to man; but also about great tragedies that result from exaggeration leading to obsession by people who have a very shallow understanding of love, limiting this wonderful feeling to the narrow relationship between genders. The rapport between the things we love, want or need and love, particularly demonstrates both qualitative and quantitative differences. Everyone tries to clarify and explain these rapports in their own way; this is what the author attempts to do in this essay.
When reasoning, linguistic explanations as well as poetical and philosophical contemplations intertwine with deep philosophical and religious knowledge, addressing the topic becomes clearer, more complete and more persuasive, and the writing itself becomes more enjoyable and educational for younger generations. Inspiration for someone who takes the pen to write is as much a divine phenomenon, and a gift and blessing form the Creator, as it is worldly in terms of knowing human life and nature in its versatility and depth.
The many human desires and their multidimensional love are social feelings and phenomena, which are difficult, almost impossible to transform into numbers or instruments, or to be varied into mathematical formulae. Allah knows best.
3. What is the next humankind’s disaster!
Ilir Akshija, M.D., M.Sc., University Hospital Center, “Mother Teresa”, Statistics Department
The shocking events of previous generations have cost the lives of millions of people, as is the case with communism, bring in mind the work of who admonished in advance. As such, it is the work of Hafiz Ali Korça, “Bolshevism a Disaster for Humankind”, published for the first time in 1925, a clear voice of renaissance articulated by an intellectual wearing an imam’s mantle and provided with the understanding of Islamic religious texts. This warning voice, like his companions, is little understood though perhaps heard everywhere and it is worth to be appraised faced with representatives of his contemporary thinkers and also with today’s criticism. A world that goes far beyond the globalization of trade is also expected to face the globalization of values and it is almost impossible not to face great occurrences that will bring good and risks to man and mankind. Returning to the visionaries of the past and especially those which accomplish their duties in close reference to the sacred texts are at least a comfort that will still be people like them, but beyond the indisputable value of comforting the true value resides in understanding the methodology of their work and finding the messages that remain actual.
4. Hodja Hasan Tahsini in the “Zani i Naltë”
Msc. Flogerta Doja, University College Bedër
Hodja Hasan Tahsini is recognized as one of the most prominent personalities of the Albanian world. He was the most knowledgeable and well educated in helping to spread knowledge and to defend the homeland and national cause. Winner of many titles, Hodja Hasan Tahsini gave a lot of importance to the right the man has to himself, to society and to the whole mankind, emphasizing that the right is not only in the interest of oneself but also in the interest of the others. In addition, the honorable hodja defines man as the highest being and the most beautiful from every standpoint. For him, man should be dressed in the silk outfit of good conduct in order to reach the appropriate height; otherwise, he is lower than the animal. Hodja Hasan Tahsini also wrote two very beautiful poems, one of them dedicated to God. He also paid great attention to counselling others. Moreover, he underlines that man should not only be a good counsellor but also a doer of good deeds, so that the advice is beneficial. He explains all these issues with verses from the Holy Qur’an and the Hadith of Prophet Mohammed, some of which he also translated into Albanian.
5. Cham Albanians in violent migration flows
Prof. Dr. Selman Sheme, Department of Geography, University of Tirana
According to the 1991 census conducted by the Patriotic Foundation “Chameria”, the population of Cham origin settled in the Republic of Albanian reaches 204.255 inhabitants.
Based on the rate of natural population growth in our country in the last 28 years, estimated according to demographic theories of population reproduction, it turns out that the Cham population in our country nowadays should be over 300.000, or around 11 percent of the country’s registered population in 2011.
The Cham Albanians who live in the mother country maintain the traditions, the customs inherited though centuries (the law of traditions), their ancient dialect, songs and dances, their characteristic outfits, unique culinary, the folklore, and above all, the determination to return to their own lands.
Ethnic cleansing of Chameria created a dangerous precedent for ethnic cleansings in the Balkans. It significantly altered the ethnic balances in the Greek-Albanian relationships in favour of the Greeks and created a problem that would influence the conscience of the Albanian people for a long time. The ethnic cleansing of Chameria prompted and strengthened the pressures of the Greek state on the Albanian state and nation, thus advancing the plans and activities for the annexation of the South of Albania.
Based on the European convention and the Universal Declaration, the Greek state must carry out its legal and constitutional obligations in its treatment of the Cham and Arvanitas populations as ethnic minorities in Greece. Meanwhile, repatriation of the Cham population that resides in the mother country and return of their properties in Chameria would improve the demographic and economic satiation in the region. Only in this way can integration and democratization of the Balkans Region be achieved.
6. Contribution of Muslim Scholars to the Second League of Prizren
M.A. Alban Dobruna, Institute of History – Prizren, Kosovo
In the last days of the fascist Italy, Albanian nationalists made preparations to hold a League, aimed at joining the Albanian lands of Kosovo, Montenegro and Macedonia with the Albanian borders, protecting these lands from the Slavic populations and ensuring the existence of Albanians in these lands in historic and diplomatic ways.
Thus, many clerics and intellectuals of the Islamic faith attended the initiating group of the Second League of Prizren, on September 16, 1943. In this paper, I intend to highlight the role and contribution of the Muslim clergy at a very critical moment for the Albanians living in Kosovo as well as their aspirations for freedom and unification with the mother country.
7. Contribution of Ismail Efendi Ndroqi to the Independence of Albania and Municipality of Tirana
Prof. Dr. Zamir Ndroqi
With his wise word, philosophy, patriotism and citizenship, Ismail Efendi Ndroqi taught harmony and emancipation. His home was an example of this emancipation from family relationships to respect and communication. He himself encouraged the change of very radical customs, recommending autonomous or self-selected marriages, changes of outfit to suit the European trend, as well as behaviour and manners at home and outside, beginning with examples of his family and daughters.
Philosophical expressions were the décor of his conversations. Meanwhile, the girls at home started preparations for the trousseau by embroidering the national flag, and the expression “For religion and homeland” was also emphasized on the two-headed eagle.
8. Religion should be embraced
Rrapo Rustemi, Student of Madrasah
Islam should be preserved with delicacy; it must be supported and raised to the highest place of human conscience for it is support for orphans and the deprived, the fortress of salvation, the garden of spiritual and material progress, as well as the foundation of peace, brotherhood and equity.
Now the question rises: How can we help and support religion? All good deeds such as support for the poor and orphans, establishment and restoration of mosques, support for students, who strive for motherland and religion, opening of hospitals and many other things may be counted as help and support for religion. However, in my opinion, the most significant help for religion, given the critical time in which we live, can be offered through the education of children, upon whom depends the value of religion and country… pushes us to take full care of those who depend on us and who recognise us as their head, we have to satisfy their needs, the greatest of which is the education of the soul.
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