1. The importance of meditation in Islam and meditation techniques
Prim. dr. med. sc. Ali F. Iljazi, Kosovo
One can spend his whole life without deep meditation because in essence, life does not require meditation and long-term mental combinations. It suffices to enter the existing systems, let onself be overwhelmed by the inert force and to follow the majority’s direction. It is similar to chess. One can play chess and reach the final stage without combinations but only as a loser.
A colossal mental potential is hidden under the uncontrolled capacities of thought, which in some families are often preserved and carefully transmitted from generation to generation.
When in question is a type of capital such as the art of thinking, one notices the special attention paid by the masters of this art, or the selection of those who leave a legacy of money and real estate. Unlike the nouveau riche who have not accumulated their wealth due to hard work, wise people, who have a wide and penetrating spectrum and are victorious meditators, instill new generations with new flexible systems oriented towards the perfection of the soul, body and mind.
People with a poorer spectrum of mediation techniques are those not entirely sure of the veracity of a particular idea. There are several meditation techniques.
2. Family in the context of global dynamics
Prof. Asoc. Dr. Rahim Ombashi, Humanity Science Faculty, Bedër University
The small state, as the family was called in ancient Rome, is not hyperbole but a qualifying metaphor. The warm kindergarten enhances the future citizen or citizen, the resident who enlarges the dignified crowd or citizen of his country and state. Therefore, the interest in the state, where he lived in peace with himself, supported the impetus for this organization to be carefully observed, to be protected, because within that environment the offspring who inherited family property should be raised. The property situation is discussed in Surat al-Nisa (Women), which deals with women’s rights and problems of family life, including spousal relationships, but clarifies the right to own a wife, which in addition to hereditary property adds to the gift of marriage. For the humanistic and socializing connections within the family goes exactly M. Walzer’s phrase that what affects everyone must be set by everyone, a condition not encountered outside of the divine cell. In the planned socialist economies, profit motives are suppressed and eliminated, which motivate people to learn and improve through competition. Therefore, now that we are on the road to capitalism, it is necessary for both the state and the family to increase the support and regulatory function. Within these ethico-moral and socio-economic parameters the completely global dynamic moves.
Keywords: Surah, family, socialization, capitalism, global, dynamics
ABU HAMID AL – GHAZALI, AUTHORITY OF ISLAM
3. Dorian Demetja, Directory of Education and Culture, Muslim Community of Albania
Imam al-Ghazali is great scholar of the Muslim world noted for his critiques of philosophy and philosophers. He belonged to the Asharite School of theology and the Shafi’i School of jurisprudence. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali’s ideas are acceptable to young and old, theologians, jurists, philosophers, imams and Sufis. With the breadth of thoughts, originality of ideas and his influence and echo both on the Muslim and non-Muslim world, Al-Ghazali, known as Algazel in the Middle Age, has a unique place in the history of religious thought. As a great personality and with an inviolable authority, Imam al-Ghazali is revered worldwide because his influence, especially on philosophy, has been of great importance not only to Muslim philosophers but also to Jews and Christians. Al-Ghazali’s methodology of writing would weigh more heavily, particularly when the Muslim state spread to other countries and peoples belonging to different religions and philosophies, as well as when their beliefs and philosophies had to be answered and when other peoples had to be invited to Islam. His work has not lost its lustre in spite of all creativity throughout the world. Imam al-Ghazali is the symbol of important intellectual and religious movements of his time.
On his journey to the best way to the truth, al-Ghazali finally devoted himself to Sufism. He considered it primary in the path of healing pointing out that for Muslims, reason and science are weapons and tools in the service of Islam. Imam al-Ghazali brilliantly established the balance between the spiritual and the physical considering them as closely related and inseparable from each other. Muslim scholars unanimously consider him the reviver of the faith of his time. He is also rightly acclaimed an Authority of Islam (Hujjat al-Islam), Ornament of Faith (Zainuddin) and a Reviver of the faith (Mujaddid).
4. Mysteries of the Treasure of Vrap, Tirana
Only the mention of the word “treasure” awakens in man the strangest and most interesting feelings, especially when real monetary values are intertwined with special artistic values. Such is the well-known “Avar Treasure” of Vrap in Tirana. This treasure is one of the most significant collections displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA. The rare collection consists of objects made of gold and silver.
The treasure was discovered east of the village of Vrap, Tirana, by Muslim brothers Murat and Ali Biciri and brothers Met and Mustafa Mema in 1991 in Meta Mema’s field. The treasure is thought to date back to the 6th century and to have belonged to Avras from Obrai, otherwise known as bulgar serbs, who for some time attacked and invaded the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Praevalitana, Dardania and Illyria.
Interestingly, part of this treasure was found on a stream bank in 1890 in the village of Lëngëz in Erseka, Kolonjë, by the Qiriazi family and in 1981 was displayed at the famous Sotheby’s Gallery in London, as the Treasure of Erseka, a southern province in Albania. Both of these collections are very similar to each other and are thought to have come from the same source. Yet, mysteries remain mysteries as they have their own secrets which can never be entirely discovered.
5. Avicenna’s Philosophical Approach to the Qur’an in the Light of His Tafsir Surat al-Ikhlas
Daniel De Smet & Meryem Sebti CNRS, Paris, France
As one of the most outstanding philosophers (falasifa) in the Muslim world, Avicenna (Ibn Sina, d. 428/1037) showed a great interest in the Qur’an and in Islamic religion in general. Although in most of his works he quotes ayas from the Qur’an, the way he uses and interprets them has not been studied thoroughly until now. Modern research mainly considers Avicenna as an Arabic Aristotelian, whose thought reflects an Alexandrian, Neo-Platonic reading of Aristotle. True as this may be, the Islamic elements in Avicenna’s writings are all too often bypassed as mere superficial and secondary concessions to his religious and cultural environment.
In order to clarify Avicenna’s approach to the Qur’an and to establish the nature of his philosophical reading of the Qur’anic text, we are currently preparing an annotated French translation of his six small treatises on Tafsïr.3 As a preliminary result of our research, the present article raises the question of the relationship between Avicenna’s metaphysics and the Qur’an, based on his Tafsir Surat al-Ikhlas.
6. Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslims Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists
Amber Haque, Ph.D., School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Doha Institute for Graduate Studies in Doha, Qatar
Early Muslims wrote extensively about human nature and called it Ilm-al Nafsiat or self-knowledge. In many cases, their Works seem to be the original ideal for many modern day psychological theories and practices. What is interesting however is that much of what the early scholars wrote was blended with Islamic philosophy and religious ideas?
This paper covers major contributions of prominent early Muslim scholars to psychology and outlines the challenges faced by today’s Muslims in adapting to the Western theories. It also offers a few recommendations on the indigenization of psychology for Muslim societies interested in seeking the Islamic perspective on human behaviours.
Keywords: Islamic psychology; early Muslim scholars; history of psychology; Muslim psychologists; indigenous psychology.
7. Hafiz Sabit ef. Zajmi (1893 – 1975)
Feti Tunuzliu, Mitrovica, Kosovo
Sabit Zajmi called for the emancipation of Albanian women, for their equal rights to education alongside with man towards an emancipated society. In addition to family and religious gatherings, he articulated these ideas in his written work. In service of patriotism, as a Muslim intellectual of the time, Sabit Zajmi propagandized that the Albanian population should not leave their country to move to Turkey.
He always gathered Muslims to advise them. In addition to Arabic, he knew Persian and Turkish languages and literature, and also wrote in these languages. At the same time, he was an excellent connoisseur of Islamic inheritance jurisprudence. His versatile personality shows that he was a contemporary teacher and scholar.
8. Tafseer of Surah Ad-Duha
Prophet Muhammad desired to see his homeland, Mecca, and the entire Arabia, cleansed of idols, while his nation and all mankind endowed with accurate beliefs and angelic morals. Indeed, within 20 years, the Arabian Peninsula was transformed from a dessert of darkness and savagery into a garden of civilisation and humanity, thus becoming an example of prosperity for all the world.
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