1. Social relations as seen from the prophetic tradition perspective
Prof. Dr. Faredin Ebibi, Faculty of Islamic Sciences, Skopje
Interest in Sociology, which is a discipline of science that deals with social issues and the study of social phenomena, originates and stems from the continuous development of social life.
In order to create a family on a sound educational basis and understand the problems that married couples face in the formation phase followed by other issues such as; education of the children , the study of behavioral phenomena, religious manifestations, cultures of beliefs, ideas, social and ethnic classes where this process calls for self awareness. In the same way that commitment and knowledge are reqiured to manage these processes, knowledge of delicate segments is also needed.
Most social studies confirm the fact that man, by nature, is social and instinctively tends to integrate with other members of his kind. The circumstances constrain him to deal with people and cooperate with them, in order to achieve his interests and goals, as well as meet his needs and vice versa.
Sociology as a science deals with the study of social relations at the level of individuals, groups or institutions only from the point of view or from the aspect of achieving or fulfilling the interests of this world.
When it comes to Islamic law (shariah), it is a lot different, because it builds the connection of social relations of this world with the reward or punishment of the Hereafter, by establishing a series of controls and frameworks that contribute to the proper construction of these reports. Observance of these controls strengthens the ranks of believers and protects society from disruption and fragmentation. This text tries to take a look at the importance of good social relations or relations in Islam and the consequences as a result of not fulfilling one’s duties.
2. The mosque – The most deserving place for the worship of Allah the Almighty
Resul Rexhepi, Prishtine
In Islam, mosques have a particularly prominent place. The name itself, which in Islamic sources and tradition is used as a synonym for a mosque, “Baytullah”, which means “House of Allah”, speaks volumes about the role and importance of the mosque in the lives of Muslim believers. The Muslim is closely associated with the mosque from his early childhood, when he goes to the mosque, to the mejtep, for religious teachings and instructions, and to acquire the first knowledge of religion, morals, and etiquette. This connection should remain permanent, even when he grows as a personality, because Islam recommends to his followers to go to the mosque constantly every day throughout their lives to perform ibadah (worship) in congregation, due to the fact that prayers in congregation are far more valuable than those performed individually.
Also, the largest Muslim gatherings, such as the Friday and Eid prayers, are held in the mosque, and even some very important events in the life of Muslims are closely related to the mosque; that’s the place where Qur’an is recited, mawlid is performed, sermon-nasihat (lecture, advice) is preached, holy (blessed) nights and other Islamic holidays are observed etc. And when a Muslim dies, he is again associated with the mosque, because, mainly, in the harem of the mosque or in front of the mosque, the funeral prayer is performed, which is the dignified passage of man from this world. To sum it up, the Muslim organizes his life in such a way as to be in close contact with the mosque.
Therefore, it is rightly estimated that mosques are the largest Muslim shrines as well as the first and oldest Islamic classrooms and the most important cultural and educational centers.
This paper aims to remind esteemed readers about the importance and role of mosques and congregations in the life of Muslims, the elements that make up the mosque, our attitude towards them, etc.
3. The miracle of the Holy Qur’an in the light of new scientific discoveries
Prim. dr. med. sc. Ali F. Iljazi, Gjakovë
Fourteen centuries ago, the Glorious Qur’an, revealed by Allah Almighty through the Messenger, Muhammad (peace be upon him), who lived in the Arabian Peninsula at a time when the Arabs used the lunar calendar to count time, was addressed to them in a language they understood:
“He made the sun to shine, and the moon to shine, and to it (the moon) the stages, that you may know the number of years and the reckoning. Allah did not create this except for a specific purpose. He clarifies the revelations for a people who understand.” Yunus, 5.
Allah, the All-Knowing, in His eternal knowledge, has known that the time will come when scientists will discover these facts and then realize that the Qur’an is the leader of science, while Muhammad (pbuh) is the seal of His prophets.
Therefore, Allah, the All-Knowing, for every place, guarantees the accuracy and truthfulness of the Glorious Qur’an for every time, era and generation:
“We will make it possible for them to see Our revelations in the horizons and in themselves until it becomes clear to them that it is the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is Witness over all things?” Fussilat, 53.
4. Waqf between the past and future
Edison Hoti, Waqf headquarters, Muslim Community of Albania
Waqf plays a very important role in Muslim societies. It has been the main source for the various public services provided to religious communities and beyond.
Traditionally, the creation of waqfs is embedded in the culture of Muslims and is included in all spheres of life. The Waqf has also contributed to human service in various fields of development; such as the construction of places of worship, the formation of educational institutions, infrastructure, medicine, etc. However, in modern times, waqf has seen a declining role, in almost all Muslim countries. Phenomenon which raises a number of questions related to the factors that led to this decline, thus emphasizing the reasons for its decline and at the same time the need for reform.
Studies show that transparency with funds is the main element in adding new endowments. This is the most vital dynamic of waqf. If this is lacking we can not expect any significant results, no matter how great the efforts.
The reformulation of the way of managing waqfs and the design of an integrated network, which studies the problems encountered in the practice of modern times in which we live, is also a key element in the development of waqfs.
The planning and legislative guidance of the waqf is undoubtedly the main dynamic that shows the perspective and horizon of the development of the waqf, depending on its nature and the conditions under which that waqf is composed.
The study concludes that when Muslims are more committed to waqf practices, moving transparently in the organization of waqfs and funds related to waqf practices, by increased interest in forming new waqfs, then we can really talk about a real revival of the practice of waqf. The waqf gains its missing value in Muslim society, returning proper service to those voices who benefit from the waqf, thus becoming an attractive magnet of God’s Mercy among people.
5. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, The wonder of the age I
Dorian Demetja, Directorate of Culture, Albanian Muslim Community
Bediuzzaman Said Nursi was a high-caliber scholar of Kurdish origin, born in 1878 in Eastern Turkey. He lived in the last decades of the Ottoman Empire, experienced its collapse and disintegration after the First World War, and lived 37 years after the formation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Being a person of high spirituality throughout his life and mission was as a result of acting in accordance with the Qur’an and Sunnah, as well as respecting reason and logic. He remained faithful to his cause with such nobility that he demanded nothing more than the opportunity to meet the minimum necessities of survival. Many publications and conferences have been devoted to Bediuzzaman’s distinctive qualities; such as devotion to lofty ideals, his deep perception of the world today, simplicity, all-encompassing humanism, loyalty to his companions, chastity, modesty, humbleness and little self-sufficiency. .
Bediuzzaman Said Nursi has faced, throughout his life, the most difficult trials. This is because he confronted and tried to challenge anarchy, which was based on disbelief and atheism, defining it as the most significant problem that needed to be addressed urgently. He lived at a time when a good part of humanity was immersed in atheism, due to abuse of science and philosophy, and when the minds were brainwashed by communism. He hated disbelief, tyranny, and apostasy, so he fought hard against despotism. He says: “Before me is a great fire. Its flames are reaching the cup of heaven. In that fire my child is burning, my faith is on fire. I’m running to put out that fire and save the faith. Someone is blocking my foot in the street, what does it matter? In the face of this great fire, is this small event worth it?! Truncated thoughts! Narrow views … ”
Bediuzzaman analyzed three major factors that had to do with the essence of the problems of that time, but which remained the same in our time: Ignorance in the sense of indifference to God and the Prophet, poverty and social division. Bediuzzaman dedicated his life to the fight against this fatal virus. In his eye, the hope of salvation for the ummah would be in vain, as long as false and deviant ideologies would prevail and until society was enlightened with the light of systematic learning, knowledge and thought. He inspired the younger generations with the news of the rebirth and guided them to the paths that lead to Islamic thought. He always referred to knowledge and activation of the mind and worked hard for the birth of a perfect and healthy society. To achieve such an ideal, Bediuzzaman thought that education was the main guide, which would include mosques, schools, garrisons, streets, playgrounds, and even prisons.
Bediuzzaman wrote many books, but the focus was on works entitled “Risale-i Nur” (Messages of Light). They are the fruit of serious efforts, which explain and present to today’s man the basic principles of faith and the truths of the Qur’an. Bediuzzaman himself said in a lecture: “Now I see clearly that most of my life has been commanded and directed beyond the capacity of my perception, which would produce these messages to serve the cause of the Qur’an, as if my whole life as a scholar had been spent in preparation for these writings, which demonstrate the miracle of the Qur’an. “
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the various attacks on the foundations of faith undertaken by materialists, atheists, and others, in the name of science and progress, made Bediuzzaman understand the urgent and fundamental need, which consisted of preserving and strengthening faith. His method analyzes belief and disbelief and demonstrates through clear logical arguments that, by following the method of the Qur’an, not only it is possible to reasonably prove all the truths of faith, but also demonstrate that these truths hold the only rational explanation for existence: man and the universe. With the method he developed, Bediuzzaman explained the truths of the faith in a language that can be understood by people of all walks of life, presenting the unity of mind, heart and feelings. Thus, by combining theology, mysticism, and the positive sciences, he presented a whole new perspective and aimed to eliminate the division of school, madrasa, and tekke. His works have been consistently read with great care, with sincere feelings of appreciation, and will continue to be of particular importance as time goes on.
Bediuzzaman believed that the source or the cause of man’s problems that the Islamic world was currently facing, could be cured, in particular, only through the renewal of the faith. Thus, Bediuzzaman turned his back on the politics of the time and devoted all his efforts to this goal. With a deep knowledge of the religious and modern sciences, the new path to truth that Bediuzzaman opened with the works of the Risale-i Nur was so successful in preserving and strengthening the faith that it was accepted by many personalities as the reviver of the religion as promised by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) that he would come in every century in the well-known hadith: “Surely Allah will send to this ummah at the beginning of every century a mujtahid who will renew the affairs of the religion. ”
6. Sleep as an argument/sign
One of the signs of faith that Allah brings to man and counts in the text of His Most Exalted Word is “sleep.” Since sleep is mentioned in the Qur’an as an argument (under the shadow of the term “verse”), then the believer and anyone else, provided they show no disregard and indifference, can draw the right lessons, which are very important for life. In this context, Allah is quite clear in the Qur’an:
“Indeed, Allah does not hesitate to take any example – that of a mosquito or what is smaller than it. And those who have believed know that it is the truth from their Lord. But as for those who disbelieve, they say, “What did Allah intend by this as an example? He misleads many thereby and guides many thereby. And he misleads not except the defiantly disobidient. ” Qur’an (2/26)
On the other hand, Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, thanks to the wisdom bestowed by the Creator, guides us how to read Allah’s creation and how to understand the verses of the Qur’an. As an excellent teacher, Bediuzzaman explains to us in the form of a principle that everything created by Allah appears in three faces. One of the faces looks upon and conveys the Beautiful Divine Names. The other face invites you to discover the truth of eternity. And the third face, which looks with the eyes of the nafs (ego), accompanies you in the temporality, insecurity, duplicity, and whims of earthly life. As is the case with any creation of Allah, this principle of Bediuzzaman teaches us to look at the three faces of “sleep” through the light of the Qur’an and furthermore, to read in them the message of belief in Allah and the Hereafter. This is the method of understanding the language of creation, with which Allah guides us from the first verse revealed in the Qur’an, “Read in the name of your Lord Who created (everything)!” Quran (96/1)
7. “Producing children”, A biological, economical, psychological, social and islamic perspective
Skënder Mustafi – Jusuf Zimeri, Skopje
Human society is facing a stream of new medical developments, which have taken root in modern society over the past decade, but which have now gained momentum in development. Among the most discussed and contradictory of them is that of the “pregnant mother” or “surrogate mother”. It is about implanting a fertilized ovary in a mother who carries the burden of pregnancy in exchange for material goods or as a humane and voluntary act to make others happy with children. This issue is controversial at the social, ethical, moral, legal and economic levels. It is also evaluated and classified according to various religious principles.
This research is mainly based on secondary sources of information, which is the literature and first-hand research, as well as publications of the experiences of expectant mothers. From these two types of facts a scientific analysis is made and conclusions are reached in all five perspectives.
From the research it can be clearly seen that we are dealing with a new trend in modern society, which has already taken the first steps and is developing with great impetus. The first forms of business models have already begun, where the formation of the first forms of customer interaction with manufacturers and intermediaries has begun. It is also understood that the rich and more recently the middle class are consumers, while the poor are the producers. Recently, through research, the first consequences at the psychological level of pregnant women can be felt as well as in the social aspect of different social groups. In other words, the development of the term family has gone one step further. It should also be noted that this research does not take into account ethical-moral assessments due to research dimensions and frameworks. However, research and evaluation has been done based on Islamic principles, as Islamic jurisprudence prohibits the role of the “pregnant/surrogate mother” and most types of artificial insemination.
8. The challenges of the Muslim family in the contemporary society
Msc. Ledian Cikalleshi, Korça
In the modern and post-modern period, the Muslim family faces many challenges, which make it difficult for beleivers to live their religion by listening the typical advice, turning life as a Muslim into a challenge. The development of technology, science and the changing quality of life compared to 50 or 100 years ago or even 10 years ago, constantly raises questions and discussions about what the attitude of Islam should be and how will we adapt to the new circumstances without violating the principles of religion. The main challenge of the family remains its formation: starting with the finding of a husband or wife, marriage, keeping the hijab in schools, jobs and institutions, continuing with religious education in schools, schools with mixed education of boys and girls, television and education of children, halal food and consumption of products according to Islamic criteria, communication through social networks, etc. These are some of the challenges that a Muslim family faces in maintaining the faith and balance of the religion. Some solutions or fatwas have been given to these issues, but they remain insufficient to solve the problem. This is due to the dynamic of post-modern life that makes it hard for the negative consequences of some phenomena to be understood from the beginning. The aim of this study is to identify and shed light on these challenges that the Muslim family faces in contemporary society, all over the world and in Albania in particular.
9. The White Death: Ibn ‘Arabi about the trials and virtues of hunger and fasting
Atif Khalil, Lethbridge University, Canada
This article presents an analysis of the treatment of fasting and hunger by Ibn ‘Arabi (d. 1240) in chapters 106 and 107 of his masterpiece Al-Futuhatu‘ l-mekkijje (“Meccan Openings”). In examining this short section of the encyclopedic text, the essay highlights the profound theological significance of hunger and fasting, emphasizing the virtues and fruits of spiritual toil in the thought of the Andalusian mystic. Attempts are also made to place some of Ibn ‘Arabi’s ideas in the broader context of the early Sufi tradition which he inherited.
10. Review of the novel “Muhajireen Ballads” by Nimon Muçaj
Ma. sc. Refik Gërbeshi
Written between 2016-2019, he approaches with rare mastery the Muhajireen period of 1876, the period before the League of Prizren and that of 1910, going back in time for nearly half a century in search of the cemetery of the first. The peculiarity of this novel is , that it presents the events and characters as they appear in reality, without hiding the Islamic element and the influence of the imam, the mosque and Islam. It describes in detail those times of forcible expulsion of Albanians from the lands of Prokuplje, Nis and Korshumli and the commemorations of those events in the streets of Istanbul, Izmir, Adana: down to the desire to find alive one of the survivors in the homeland, especially the blind mother from whom he was separated by the horror of the Balkan Wars. The character with mixed identity Elez Gërguri, a boy with no family, named Muhaxhiri, Arnauti, etc., accompanied by the Ottoman script with Albanian letters of the Alphabets of imams like Hoxha Hasan Tahsini, seems to signal that many truths are hidden in these writings. In this novel, the author mentions literary figures of rifles and pens, which it is our obligation to illuminate. Under the shadow of the event Muhaxhirije walks through the difficult times of violent migration of Albanians from the areas of ancient Albanian Nis to the Valley, Kosovo, Kumanovo and Skopje to Istanbul, Izmir and Adana. Trying to bring back memories of his identity by retrieving the graves of his ancestors, He comes to find the grave and the traces of identity.
Vexhi Buharaja was a prominent figure in many fields, a special intellectual in Albania, a patriot, connoisseur of the ten main Eastern and Western languages.
He was fluent in the classical languages of the Islamic East: Arabic, Persian and Ottoman along with modern Turkish. He also spoke the major languages of the West: English, German, French and Italian. After 1966, when he started working at the Institute of History as a research associate, he also mastered Russian.
This great man, poet, translator, writer, historian, orientalist, scholar and researcher, was hired as a teacher and faced a lot of difficulties, as he was a man “unwanted” by the communist system. In 1965 he was admitted to the Sector of Medieval History, at the Institute of History in Tirana. Vexhi Buharaja with his research work, scientific study produced great results. The work he did at the Institute of History revealed many secrets to Albania. Due to Vexhi Buharaja’s persistent work, organized research and study, he was able to collect and translate into Albanian and also transcribe about three hundred Turkish-Ottoman-Arabic inscriptions, of great value.
Why we should be religious (II)
The Qur’an is a deed worthy of all respect. The Qur’an has informed man of the attribute of God; make clear to man the relationship he has with God and what to expect from Him. The Qur’an encompasses all moral and philosophical foundations. Virtue and vice, good and evil, truth and true color of everything is explained in the Qur’an…
The Qur’an is the one who tied some pieces of bastardized and degenerate quarrelsome people together and united them in a National unity that had to do with the fate of the world. The foundations of wisdom and philosophy, justice and equality, are explained in the Qur’an.
The Qur’an advises and envisions mass savings and expenses; It brings to light the man who has lost his way. It saves morale. The Qur’an changes man’s faults and mistakes and exchanges them for high and perfect virtues.
It was foolish to call Islam a barbaric religion. These people have closed their eyes to the Qur’an, and they did not want to understand how this lofty book has been eradicating evil vices from the hearts of people for many centuries.
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